A cover letter sent to a company that may not have publicly advertised positions is called a cold contact letter. You're contacting the employer to introduce yourself with the hope that it may spark an interest and result in a warm lead (also known as an interview). For obvious reasons, a cold contact letter will generate the fewest leads, so paying special attention to the content and adding a couple unique elements will increase your return rate.
Understanding the obstacles, too, will help you determine how to best handle them and result in additional responses to your correspondence.
Cold contact cover letter obstacles
Obstacles could arise from sending your cover letter and resume to a strained hiring department. Or maybe, a position doesn't exist for you, or your skill set doesn't match the employer's needs even if the organization is hiring. The point is, if you're determined to conduct a cold-contact campaign, don't be overly concerned when you receive few responses.
Know the company
It seems cliched or redundant to mention researching the company before forwarding your documents, but it's amazing on how many job-seekers fail to do just that. It's pivotal that you take a "quality, not quantity" approach to your job search. Focusing your efforts on targeting, researching, and applying to a small and specific, targeted list of employers will generate a higher return from your efforts. By researching potential employers, you're reflecting to the company that you're serious about joining its team -- so much so, that you're willing to dedicate your personal time to learning about the company.
Striking the right tone
Unlike correspondence written a decade ago, the tone of letters has changed in today's job market. Incorporating a conversational tone to your letter will help readers relate to you. It's difficult to explain what exactly writing in conversational tone is other than to say it's similar to how you speak. You'll ditch many of the stuffy, stock fragments that once existed, such as, "Please find my resume attached in response to the position advertised in the Dayton Daily News."
Instead, start your letter with, for example, "A few months back, I met with John Brickman at the business exposition in Vancouver. I was stunned by his knowledge of the robotics industry. I realized, after speaking with him for only a few minutes, that Jackman Technologies, Inc., was a perfect fit for my skill set -- and let me tell you why."
Don't design the letter to have a heavy or light appearance. You're shooting for something that is within a "happy medium." When you're finished writing, sit back and examine your words. Let it sit overnight, if necessary. Always analyze every fragment and sentence you're using to determine if there's a better or more effective way of presenting yourself. It sounds a bit obsessive-compulsive, but unfortunately, you REALLY DO have just one chance to make a great first impression.
Ensure that you're not wasting your time, or more importantly, the company's time. If you're a software engineer and the company you're targeting outsources its entire system needs, then you're wasting time vying for employment with that company. Know your viability factor before adding any company to your target list. Make a courtesy phone call, if necessary. If you place a call, ask for a contact name too. Why not kill two birds with one stone?
Do your legwork before sending any cold contact letter. Every job seeker finds himself or herself sending this type of letter from time to time, so do yourself a favor by cultivating the info you'll need to design a letter that outshines those used by others. A good rule of thumb is "be innovative, not imitative."
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